**Absolute value:**- (of an integer) the size or magnitude of the number without regard to the sign
- Acute triangle:
- a triangle with each angle less than 90; also called an acute-angled triangle
- Addition magic squares:
- squares in which the sum of the numbers in each row, column, or diagonal is the same
- Adjacent angles:
- pairs of angles sharing a common side and a common vertex
- Algebra:
- the branch of mathematics that uses variables to study the relationship between numbers
- Algebraic expression:
- a combination of variables, numbers, and arithmetic operations; also called a variable expression
- Algorithm:
- a set of steps for finding the answer to a problem
- Apothem:
- the perpendicular distance from the centre of a regular polygon to a side
- Arc:
- the part of a circle between any two points on the circle
- Axis of symmetry:
- a line about which a symmetrical three-dimensional object can be rotated so that its turn image matches its original position more than once in a full turn
- Base (of a parallelogram):
- any side of a parallelogram
- Base (of a polyhedron):
- the face or pair of faces from which the height of the polyhedron is measured
- Bases (of a trapezoid):
- the parallel sides of a trapezoid; sometimes called and because they are of different lengths
- Box and whisker plot:
- a graph that illustrates the spread of data
- Cancelling:
- (in multiplication) the process of dividing a numerator and a denominator by a common factor
- Capture-recapture:
- a sampling method used to estimate the number of wild animals in a region
- Cartesian coordinate system:
- a way of defining the position of a point in two-dimensional space
- Central angle:
- the angle formed by a pair of radii
- Central tendency (measure of):
- the statistic that gives an averagemedian, mean, mode
- Chance:
- the probability of an event happening, usually expressed as a percent
- Chord:
- a line segment joining two points on a circle
- Circle:
- a set of all points in a plane that are the same distance from a fixed point called the centre
- Circumference:
- the distance around a circle
- Clusters:
- values grouped closely together in a set of data
- Commission:
- the pay an employee earns based on a percentage of the sales made by the employee
- Complex fraction:
- a fraction which has a fraction in the numerator and/or in the denominator
- Composite (figure):
- a figure made up of two or more shapes
- Composite shape:
- an object composed of a combination of two or more basic shapes
- Compound interest:
- the interest earned (charged) on an amount of money and added to the principal to earn (charge) more interest in the following year
- Concave (polyhedron):
- a polyhedron in which some of the flat surfaces slope inwards
- Conditional equation:
- an equation that is only true for certain values of the variable
- Convex (polyhedron):
- a polyhedron in which all the flat surfaces slope outwards
- Cross section:
- a two-dimensional figure that is the intersection of a three-dimensional solid and a plane
- Dart:
- a concave trapezium with two sets of adjacent sides congruent; also called an arrowhead or a deltoid
- Degree (of a vertex):
- the number of edges that meet the vertex
- Diagonal:
- a line segment joining any two vertices of a polygon not already joined
- Diameter:
- a chord through the centre of a circle
- Dilatation:
- a kind of transformation in which the image is an enlargement or a reduction of the original
- Discount:
- the amount by which the regular price is reduced
**Interest:**the amount paid for the use of money - Distribution (measures of):
- the statistics that give the spreadextremes, range, quartiles, interquartile range, clusters, and gaps
- Dividend:
- the number which is to be divided
- Divisor:
- the number by which the dividend is to be divided
- Edge:
- a line segment formed by the intersection of two faces
- Even vertex (of a network):
- a vertex having an even number of edges connected to it
- Face:
- one of the flat surfaces of a polyhedron
- Factors:
- in a mathematical statement, the numbers being multiplied
- First-hand (primary) data:
- data gathered directly
- Formula:
- an equation that shows how one quantity is related to one or more other quantities
- Gaps:
- spaces between values in a set of data
- Height (of a parallelogram):
- in a parallelogram, the perpendicular distance from the base to the opposite side
- Height (of a polyhedron):
- the vertical distance from a vertex to the base
- Height (of a trapezoid):
- the perpendicular distance between the bases of a trapezoid
- Inscribed angle:
- an angle drawn inside a circle so that the vertex of the angle is on the circle and the arms of the angle are chords of the circle
- Inscribed:
- a figure drawn inside a circle or other figure, with all the points of the inner figure touching the outer figure
- Interquartile range:
- the difference between the upper quartile and lower quartile
- Inverse operations:
- operations that undo each other
- Isosceles trapezoid:
- a trapezoid with the non-parallel sides congruent
- Kite:
- a convex trapezium with two sets of adjacent sides congruent
- Line plot:
- a graph used to organize and display data; also called a data plot
- Lower extreme:
- the least value in the set of data
- Lower quartile:
- the middle value (or average of the two middle values) in the set of values less than the median
- Mean:
- the arithmetic average of a set of data
- Median:
- the middle value (or the average of the middle two values) in a set of data arranged in ascending order
- Mode:
- the value that occurs most frequently in a set of data
- Monte-Carlo method:
- a technique where events are modelled using probability tools such as coins, dice, and dials, or using a computer to generate random numbers -- These models are called simulations.
- Multiplicative inverses:
- two numbers whose product is 1; also called reciprocals
- Net:
- a two-dimensional pattern that can be folded into a three-dimensional shape
- Network:
- a figure consisting of edges and vertices; sometimes called a graph
- Obtuse triangle:
- a triangle with an angle greater than 90; also called an obtuse-angled triangle
- Odd vertex (of a network):
- a vertex having an odd number of edges connected to it
- Odds (against):
- a comparison of the unfavourable outcomes to the favourable outcomes
- Odds (in favour):
- a comparison of the favourable outcomes to the unfavourable outcomes
- Opposite angles (in a parallelogram):
- non-adjacent angles
- Origin:
- on a graph, the point where the x-axis and y-axis meet
- Outliers:
- values in a set of data that are more than 1.5 times the interquartile range above the upper quartile or below the lower quartile
- Parallelogram:
- a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides
- Percent:
- a ratio having 100 as its second term
- Perfect square:
- a number that has a counting number (natural number) as its square root
- Perimeter:
- the distance around a figure
- Plane of symmetry:
- a plane (flat surface) which divides a symmetrical three-dimensional figure into two identical halves
- Polygon:
- a simple closed figure with straight sides
- Polyhedron:
- (plural: polyhedra) a three-dimensional shape which has only flat surfaces
- Population:
- in statistics, the set of people, animals, or things being studied
- Power of ten:
- power with a base of ten
- Principal:
- money which is invested or borrowed
- Problem:
- a task for which the method of finding the answer (as well as the answer) is not immediately known
- Product:
- the result in multiplication
- Proportions:
- equations that show two ratios are equivalent
- Pythagorean relation:
- the relationship that shows that in a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the legs
is equal to the square of the hypotenuse; a
^{2}+ b^{2}= c^{2} - Pythagorean triple:
- three numbers whose sum of the squares of the two smaller numbers equals the square of the third number
- Quadrant:
- one of the four regions formed by the axes on a graph
- Quotient:
- the number resulting from division
- Radius:
- a line segment from the centre of a circle to any point on the circle
- Range:
- the difference between the upper extreme and lower extreme in a set of data
- Rate:
- a comparison of quantities measured in different units
- Ratio:
- a comparison of quantities measured in the same unit
- Rectangle:
- a parallelogram with a right angle
- Regular polygon:
- a polygon with congruent sides and congruent angles
- Regular polyhedron:
- a polyhedron in which all the faces are identical regular polygons and in which the same number of faces and the same number of edges meet at each vertex
- Relative frequency:
- the ratio of the number of times something has occurred to the number of times it could occur
- Rhombus:
- a parallelogram with four congruent sides
- Right triangle:
- a triangle with an angle of 90; also called a right-angled triangle
- Sample:
- the part of the population that is surveyed or tested
- Scale drawing:
- a drawing used to accurately picture a person, animal, or thing that is too large or too small to be drawn actual size
- Scale factor:
- in a drawing, the ratio of the drawn length to the actual length expressed as a single number
- Scale model:
- a likeness of an object that has the same proportions as the object
- Scientific notation:
- a way of expressing a number as the product of a power of ten and a number between 1 and 10
- Second-hand (secondary) data:
- data obtained from others
- Sector:
- the region in a circle bounded by a pair of radii and an arc
- Semi-regular polyhedron:
- a polyhedron in which the faces consist of at least two different types of regular polygons combined in the same way around each vertex; for example, the shapes of a soccer ball
- Sequence:
- a set of numbers or pictures that is ordered according to some rule or formula
- Shell:
- a three-dimensional model in which the interior is empty
- Skeleton:
- a three-dimensional model showing only the edges and vertices of a three-dimensional shape
- Solid:
- a three-dimensional model in which the interior is filled
- Solution (of an equation):
- the value of the variable that makes the equation true
- Spreadsheet:
- a computer-generated arrangement of data in rows and columns
- Square root:
- a number which, when multiplied by itself, results in the given number
- Square:
- a parallelogram with four congruent sides and a right angle
- Standard form:
- the usual form of a number
- Subtraction magic squares:
- squares in which the sum of the two end numbers (in any row, column, or diagonal), minus the centre number, is the same
- Supplementary (angles):
- two angles having a sum of 180
- Symmetry:
- the property that makes a figure look balanced
- Tangram:
- an ancient Chinese puzzle that has seven geometric shapes called tans (two large triangles, one medium triangle, two small triangles, a square, and a parallelogram)
- Technology:
- the application of tools, materials, and processes to problem solving; more specifically, devices and systems used in processing, transferring, storing, and communicating information through electronic media
- Term:
- each number or item in a sequence -- The first number in a sequence is called the first term, the second number is called the second term, and so on.
- Tessellation:
- an arrangement of congruent figures that covers a surface without gaps or overlapping
- Theoretical probability (of an event):
- the ratio of the number of favourable outcomes (what you want to happen) to the number of possible outcomes (what could happen)
- Trapezium:
- a quadrilateral without any parallel sides
- Trapezoid:
- a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
- Traversable:
- a network that has a path that travels along every edge exactly once
- Upper extreme:
- the greatest value in a set of data
- Upper quartile:
- the middle value (or average of the two middle values) in the set of values greater than the median
- Variable:
- a quantity, represented by a symbol that may have many values
- Vertex:
- (plural: vertices) a point in a polyhedron where three or more edges meet
- Volume:
- the amount of space an object occupies
- Windchill equivalent temperature:
- a temperature which indicates how cold a wind makes the air feel