Absolute value:
(of an integer) the size or magnitude of the number without regard to the sign
Acute triangle:
a triangle with each angle less than 90; also called an acute-angled triangle
Addition magic squares:
squares in which the sum of the numbers in each row, column, or diagonal is the same
Adjacent angles:
pairs of angles sharing a common side and a common vertex
the branch of mathematics that uses variables to study the relationship between numbers
Algebraic expression:
a combination of variables, numbers, and arithmetic operations; also called a variable expression
a set of steps for finding the answer to a problem
the perpendicular distance from the centre of a regular polygon to a side
the part of a circle between any two points on the circle
Axis of symmetry:
a line about which a symmetrical three-dimensional object can be rotated so that its turn image matches its original position more than once in a full turn
Base (of a parallelogram):
any side of a parallelogram
Base (of a polyhedron):
the face or pair of faces from which the height of the polyhedron is measured
Bases (of a trapezoid):
the parallel sides of a trapezoid; sometimes called and because they are of different lengths
Box and whisker plot:
a graph that illustrates the spread of data
(in multiplication) the process of dividing a numerator and a denominator by a common factor
a sampling method used to estimate the number of wild animals in a region
Cartesian coordinate system:
a way of defining the position of a point in two-dimensional space
Central angle:
the angle formed by a pair of radii
Central tendency (measure of):
the statistic that gives an averagemedian, mean, mode
the probability of an event happening, usually expressed as a percent
a line segment joining two points on a circle
a set of all points in a plane that are the same distance from a fixed point called the centre
the distance around a circle
values grouped closely together in a set of data
the pay an employee earns based on a percentage of the sales made by the employee
Complex fraction:
a fraction which has a fraction in the numerator and/or in the denominator
Composite (figure):
a figure made up of two or more shapes
Composite shape:
an object composed of a combination of two or more basic shapes
Compound interest:
the interest earned (charged) on an amount of money and added to the principal to earn (charge) more interest in the following year
Concave (polyhedron):
a polyhedron in which some of the flat surfaces slope inwards
Conditional equation:
an equation that is only true for certain values of the variable
Convex (polyhedron):
a polyhedron in which all the flat surfaces slope outwards
Cross section:
a two-dimensional figure that is the intersection of a three-dimensional solid and a plane
a concave trapezium with two sets of adjacent sides congruent; also called an arrowhead or a deltoid
Degree (of a vertex):
the number of edges that meet the vertex
a line segment joining any two vertices of a polygon not already joined
a chord through the centre of a circle
a kind of transformation in which the image is an enlargement or a reduction of the original
the amount by which the regular price is reduced Interest: the amount paid for the use of money
Distribution (measures of):
the statistics that give the spreadextremes, range, quartiles, interquartile range, clusters, and gaps
the number which is to be divided
the number by which the dividend is to be divided
a line segment formed by the intersection of two faces
Even vertex (of a network):
a vertex having an even number of edges connected to it
one of the flat surfaces of a polyhedron
in a mathematical statement, the numbers being multiplied
First-hand (primary) data:
data gathered directly
an equation that shows how one quantity is related to one or more other quantities
spaces between values in a set of data
Height (of a parallelogram):
in a parallelogram, the perpendicular distance from the base to the opposite side
Height (of a polyhedron):
the vertical distance from a vertex to the base
Height (of a trapezoid):
the perpendicular distance between the bases of a trapezoid
Inscribed angle:
an angle drawn inside a circle so that the vertex of the angle is on the circle and the arms of the angle are chords of the circle
a figure drawn inside a circle or other figure, with all the points of the inner figure touching the outer figure
Interquartile range:
the difference between the upper quartile and lower quartile
Inverse operations:
operations that undo each other
Isosceles trapezoid:
a trapezoid with the non-parallel sides congruent
a convex trapezium with two sets of adjacent sides congruent
Line plot:
a graph used to organize and display data; also called a data plot
Lower extreme:
the least value in the set of data
Lower quartile:
the middle value (or average of the two middle values) in the set of values less than the median
the arithmetic average of a set of data
the middle value (or the average of the middle two values) in a set of data arranged in ascending order
the value that occurs most frequently in a set of data
Monte-Carlo method:
a technique where events are modelled using probability tools such as coins, dice, and dials, or using a computer to generate random numbers -- These models are called simulations.
Multiplicative inverses:
two numbers whose product is 1; also called reciprocals
a two-dimensional pattern that can be folded into a three-dimensional shape
a figure consisting of edges and vertices; sometimes called a graph
Obtuse triangle:
a triangle with an angle greater than 90; also called an obtuse-angled triangle
Odd vertex (of a network):
a vertex having an odd number of edges connected to it
Odds (against):
a comparison of the unfavourable outcomes to the favourable outcomes
Odds (in favour):
a comparison of the favourable outcomes to the unfavourable outcomes
Opposite angles (in a parallelogram):
non-adjacent angles
on a graph, the point where the x-axis and y-axis meet
values in a set of data that are more than 1.5 times the interquartile range above the upper quartile or below the lower quartile
a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides
a ratio having 100 as its second term
Perfect square:
a number that has a counting number (natural number) as its square root
the distance around a figure
Plane of symmetry:
a plane (flat surface) which divides a symmetrical three-dimensional figure into two identical halves
a simple closed figure with straight sides
(plural: polyhedra) a three-dimensional shape which has only flat surfaces
in statistics, the set of people, animals, or things being studied
Power of ten:
power with a base of ten
money which is invested or borrowed
a task for which the method of finding the answer (as well as the answer) is not immediately known
the result in multiplication
equations that show two ratios are equivalent
Pythagorean relation:
the relationship that shows that in a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the legs is equal to the square of the hypotenuse; a2 + b2 = c2
Pythagorean triple:
three numbers whose sum of the squares of the two smaller numbers equals the square of the third number
one of the four regions formed by the axes on a graph
the number resulting from division
a line segment from the centre of a circle to any point on the circle
the difference between the upper extreme and lower extreme in a set of data
a comparison of quantities measured in different units
a comparison of quantities measured in the same unit
a parallelogram with a right angle
Regular polygon:
a polygon with congruent sides and congruent angles
Regular polyhedron:
a polyhedron in which all the faces are identical regular polygons and in which the same number of faces and the same number of edges meet at each vertex
Relative frequency:
the ratio of the number of times something has occurred to the number of times it could occur
a parallelogram with four congruent sides
Right triangle:
a triangle with an angle of 90; also called a right-angled triangle
the part of the population that is surveyed or tested
Scale drawing:
a drawing used to accurately picture a person, animal, or thing that is too large or too small to be drawn actual size
Scale factor:
in a drawing, the ratio of the drawn length to the actual length expressed as a single number
Scale model:
a likeness of an object that has the same proportions as the object
Scientific notation:
a way of expressing a number as the product of a power of ten and a number between 1 and 10
Second-hand (secondary) data:
data obtained from others
the region in a circle bounded by a pair of radii and an arc
Semi-regular polyhedron:
a polyhedron in which the faces consist of at least two different types of regular polygons combined in the same way around each vertex; for example, the shapes of a soccer ball
a set of numbers or pictures that is ordered according to some rule or formula
a three-dimensional model in which the interior is empty
a three-dimensional model showing only the edges and vertices of a three-dimensional shape
a three-dimensional model in which the interior is filled
Solution (of an equation):
the value of the variable that makes the equation true
a computer-generated arrangement of data in rows and columns
Square root:
a number which, when multiplied by itself, results in the given number
a parallelogram with four congruent sides and a right angle
Standard form:
the usual form of a number
Subtraction magic squares:
squares in which the sum of the two end numbers (in any row, column, or diagonal), minus the centre number, is the same
Supplementary (angles):
two angles having a sum of 180
the property that makes a figure look balanced
an ancient Chinese puzzle that has seven geometric shapes called tans (two large triangles, one medium triangle, two small triangles, a square, and a parallelogram)
the application of tools, materials, and processes to problem solving; more specifically, devices and systems used in processing, transferring, storing, and communicating information through electronic media
each number or item in a sequence -- The first number in a sequence is called the first term, the second number is called the second term, and so on.
an arrangement of congruent figures that covers a surface without gaps or overlapping
Theoretical probability (of an event):
the ratio of the number of favourable outcomes (what you want to happen) to the number of possible outcomes (what could happen)
a quadrilateral without any parallel sides
a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
a network that has a path that travels along every edge exactly once
Upper extreme:
the greatest value in a set of data
Upper quartile:
the middle value (or average of the two middle values) in the set of values greater than the median
a quantity, represented by a symbol that may have many values
(plural: vertices) a point in a polyhedron where three or more edges meet
the amount of space an object occupies
Windchill equivalent temperature:
a temperature which indicates how cold a wind makes the air feel